Scientifically Based Research* At the present time, the standards for scientifically based research is only met in the “essential components of reading instruction”.
Reading is defined as a complex system of deriving meaning from print that requires all of the following:
Skills and knowledge to understand how phonemes (or speech sounds) are connected to print Ability to decode unfamiliar words Ability to read fluently Sufficient background information and vocabulary to foster reading comprehension Development of appropriate strategies to construct meaning from print Development and maintenance of a motivation to read The essential components of reading instruction are explicit and systematic instruction in: Phonemic awareness Phonics Vocabulary development Reading fluency – including oral reading skills Reading comprehension strategies. *Scientifically based research, in its generic sense, has certain specific standards. Any subject or area of study must have these standards to be called “scientifically based”. The following is particular to the area of reading: Scientifically based Reading Research: Applies rigorous, systematic and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge relevant to reading development, reading instruction, and reading difficulties, including research that employs systematic empirical methods drawing on observation or experiment, involves rigorous data analysis adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify general conclusions, relies on measurement or observational methods, and has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved panel of independent experts through a comparable review.